PURPOSE: We aimed to explore the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in guidance of percutaneous biopsy of anterior mediastinal lesions.
METHODS: Ninety patients with solitary anterior mediastinal lesions (55 males, 35 females; mean age, 46±4 years) were included. Patients were randomly divided into CEUS group (n=45) and conventional ultrasonography (US) group (n=45). Real-time US-guided core needle (16 G) percutaneous biopsies were performed in all lesions. The display of internal mammary arteries, internal necrosis, and active areas were recorded and compared. Biopsy success rate and diagnostic accuracy were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS: Display rate of unenhanced internal necrosis was higher in the CEUS group than in the US group (88.9% vs. 46.7%, P = 0.041). With real-time CEUS guidance, internal mammary arteries were effectively displayed and avoided during biopsies in 68.9% of the lesions (31/45). Of the lesions, 88.9% (80/90) were histologically proven, including 13 benign lesions and 67 malignancies. There was a significant difference in the rate of successful puncture attempts between the two groups (P = 0.041). CEUS group had a higher biopsy success rate (100% vs. 95.5%, P = 0.045) and higher diagnostic accuracy (97.8% vs. 82.2%, P = 0.035) compared with the US group (P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: CEUS guidance is a promising technique in depicting internal necrotic areas, viable areas, and internal mammary arteries during percutaneous biopsy of anterior mediastinal lesion, with satisfying safety, accuracy, and success rates.