Breast Imaging - Pictorial Essay
Abnormal axillary lymph nodes on negative mammograms: causes other than breast cancer
Departments of Radiology, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey
Department of Radiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA
Diagn Interv Radiol 2012; 18: 473-479
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Key Words: mammography • lymph nodes • ultrasonography • axilla
Enlargement of lymph nodes can be due to a variety of benign and malignant causes. The most common malignant cause is invasive ductal carcinoma, which is usually visualized with mammography. Excluding breast cancer, other causes of abnormal lymph nodes that produce a negative mammogram include lymphoma, metastases from other malignancies, and benign etiologies such as inflammatory processes, infectious diseases, collagen vascular diseases, and miscellaneous causes. In this essay, we described common causes of abnormal axillary lymph nodes on negative mammograms excluding breast cancer.