ISSN 1305-3825 | E-ISSN 1305-3612
Interventional Radiology - Review
Image-guided focal therapy for prostate cancer
1 Molecular Imaging Program, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA  
2 Center for Interventional Oncology, NCI and Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA  
3 Urologic Oncology Branch, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA  
4 Center for Interventional Oncology, NCI and Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; Urologic Oncology Branch, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.  
Diagn Interv Radiol 2014; 20: 492-497
DOI: 10.5152/dir.2014.14134
Abstract

The adoption of routine prostate specific antigen screening has led to the discovery of many small and low-grade prostate cancers which have a low probability of causing mortality. These cancers, however, are often treated with radical therapies resulting in long-term side effects. There has been increasing interest in minimally invasive focal therapies to treat these tumors. While imaging modalities have improved rapidly over the past decade, similar advances in image-guided therapy are now starting to emerge—potentially achieving equivalent oncologic efficacy while avoiding the side effects of conventional radical surgery. The purpose of this article is to review the existing literature regarding the basis of various focal therapy techniques such as cryotherapy, microwave, laser, and high intensity focused ul­trasound, and to discuss the results of recent clinical trials that demonstrate early outcomes in patients with prostate cancer.

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