Purpose: To examine the utility of the non-Gaussian diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) for assessment of chemotherapy response in patients with cervical (neck) non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Materials and methods: Patients with cervical non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) underwent 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging with maximal b-value of 2000 s/mm2 at baseline and 7 post-chemotherapy treatment. ADC value and diffusion kurtosis imaging maps for diffusion coefficient (D) and kurtosis (K) were calculated. Based on the clinical examination, laboratory screening and PET/CTs obtained, patients were classified as responders or non-responders.
Results: Twenty-six patients were enrolled. Among them, 24 patients were classified as responders and 2 as non-responders. For responders mean post ADC and D increased significantly compared with baseline (0.92 ± 0.11×10-3 mm2/s versus 0.68 ± 0.11×10-3 mm2/s, 1.47 ± 0.32×10-3 mm2/s versus 0.98 ± 0.21×10-3 mm2/s, respectively, both p＜0.001). Mean post K decreased significantly than baseline (1.14 ± 0.10 versus 1.47 ± 0.19, p＜0.001) for responders. Dratio showed significantly positive correlation and highly agreement with ADCratio (r = 0.776, p ＜ 0.001). Likewise, Kratio showed significantly negative correlation and highly agreement with ADCratio (r = -0.658, p ＜ 0.001).
Conclusion: The new DKI model may serve as a new biomarker for the evaluation of early chemotherapy response in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.