Department of Vascular Imaging and Intervention, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Department of Imaging, Hospital Professor Doutor Fernando Fonseca, Amadora, Portugal
Department of Radiology, Kalispell Regional Medical Center, Kalispell, Montana, USA
Department of Vascular Imaging and Interventions Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Division of Vascular Imaging and Intervention, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a growing epidemic with bleak patient outcomes. A variety of treatment modalities have been adopted to address CLI based on comorbidities, life expectancy, and the nature of the arterial disease. With advances in technology and treatment strategies, the clinical outcomes of CLI patients have significantly improved over recent years. However, despite progress, patency rates of both surgical and endovascular interventions, limb-salvage and amputation rates are still dismal. We review the epidemiology, treatment strategies, imaging modalities, and the microcirculation aspect of CLI.