Breast Imaging - Original Article

Assessment of vascularity with color Doppler ultrasound in gynecomastia


  • Selma Uysal Ramadan
  • Dilek Gökharman
  • Mahmut Kaçar
  • Pınar Koşar
  • Uğur Koşar

Received Date: 03.11.2008 Accepted Date: 06.04.2009 Diagn Interv Radiol 2010;16(1):38-44


The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and type of vascularity with color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in gynecomastia, to describe gray-scale ultrasound (US) and CDUS features in different stages of gynecomastia, and to compare these findings with the characteristic US appearances of Tanner stages.


A total of 108 breasts of 54 males aged 11–27 years with complaint of gynecomastia and US verification of gynecomastia were evaluated. Each breast was then classified according to Tanner stages. The retroareolar thickness was measured. The breast was divided into three regions (medial, lateral, and retroareolar) and the arterial flow was scored according to the number of regions in which arterial flow was observed. Venous blood flow was scored according to the number of vessels in each breast.


Gynecomastia was present in 78 breasts with a retroareolar thickness of 5–31 mm and symptom duration of 1–300 weeks. Fifteen breasts with gynecomastia had no arterial or venous flow. Tanner stages were found to be strongly associated with arterial and venous flow scores, duration of symptoms, and retroareolar thickness (P < 0.001).


This study shows that vascular structures should be accepted as a component of gynecomastia. Vascularity in gynecomastia corresponds to progression of breast development, and as the process advances vascularity becomes more prominent.

Keywords: breast diseases , gynecomastia , male , ultrasonography