Interventional Radiology - Original Article

CT fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty in patients with multiple myeloma: analysis of technical results from 44 sessions with 67 vertebrae treated


  • Christoph Trumm
  • Tobias Jakobs
  • Anne Pahl
  • Robert Stahl
  • Thomas Helmberger
  • Philipp Paprottka
  • Maximilian Reiser
  • Ralf-Thorsten Hoffmann

Received Date: 24.01.2011 Accepted Date: 26.04.2011 Diagn Interv Radiol 2012;18(1):111-120


This study aimed to assess the results of computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided vertebroplasty in patients with multiple myeloma, focusing on the frequency and clinical impact of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) leaks.


From December 2001 to August 2008, 39 patients (17 females, 22 males; mean age, 65±7 years) with multiple myeloma suffering from painful spinal osteolyses underwent vertebroplasty. A total of 67 vertebrae were treated in 44 sessions under CT fluoroscopy (single-slice, 4-row CT, and 16-row CT). In the planning CT scan, osteolytic destruction (i.e., none, ≤25%, ≤50%, ≤75%, or ≤100%) was assessed regarding the vertebral cross-sectional area, the cortical border of the spinal canal, and the outer circumference. CT performed after vertebroplasty was used to detect local PMMA leaks. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed with special respect to peri and postinterventional adverse events. Clinical outcomes were assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) 24 hours before, 24 hours after, and 6 months after vertebroplasty.


Overall, 37.3%, 12.0%, and 6.0% of vertebrae showed at least 50% osteolytic involvement of the cross-sectional area, spinal canal, and outer vertebral cortex, respectively. Intradiscal, intraspinal, paravertebral, and intercostovertebral/posterolateral leaks were seen in 21.6%, 35.1%, 43.3%, and 0% of vertebrae, respectively. The ratio of basivertebral to segmental venous leaks was 16.2%/40.5%. No major complications occurred. The mean VAS score decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 6.4 at 24 hours before vertebroplasty to 3.2 at a mean follow-up of 9.0 months.


Vertebroplasty in multiple myeloma can be performed safely under CT fluoroscopy, even with substantial destruction of the vertebral cross-sectional area or cortical bone. A high clinical success rate was achieved, regardless of whether PMMA leaks were present.

Keywords: multiple myeloma, vertebroplasy, fluoroscopy, computed tomography