Abdominal Imaging - Original Article

Long-term follow-up results of multiparametric prostate MRI and the prognostic value of PI-RADS: a single-center retrospective cohort study


  • Ömer Önder
  • Müjdat Ayva
  • Yasin Yaraşır
  • Volkan Gürler
  • Mustafa Sertaç Yazıcı
  • Bülent Akdoğan
  • Ali Devrim Karaosmanoğlu
  • Muşturay Karçaaltıncaba
  • Mustafa Nasuh Özmen
  • Deniz Akata

Received Date: 17.07.2023 Accepted Date: 30.08.2023 Diagn Interv Radiol 0;0(0):0-0 [e-Pub] PMID: 37724756


We aim to examine the long-term outcomes of patients who underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) for suspected prostate cancer (PCa), specifically based on their initial Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) categories and various clinical factors. Our secondary aim is to evaluate the prognostic value of the PI-RADS through the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group distribution.


This research was conducted as a single-center retrospective cohort study in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1,359 cases having at least one histopathological examination after the initial mp-MRI and/or adequate clinical/radiological follow-up data were included in the clinically significant PCa (cs-PCa) diagnosis-free survival analysis. Initial mp-MRI dates were accepted as the start of follow-up for the time-to-event analysis. The event was defined as cs-PCa diagnosis (International Society of Urological Pathology ≥2). Patients who were not diagnosed with cs-PCa during follow-up were censored according to predefined literature-based criteria at the end of the maximum follow-up duration with no reasonable suspicion of PCa and no biopsy indication. The impact of various factors on survival was assessed using a log-rank test and multivariable Cox regression. Subsequently, 394 cases diagnosed with PCa during follow-up were evaluated, based on initial PI-RADS categories and NCCN risk groups.


Three main risk factors for cs-PCa diagnosis during follow-up were an initial PI-RADS 5 category, initial PI-RADS 4 category, and high MRI-defined PSA density (mPSAD), with average hazard ratios of 29.52, 14.46, and 3.12, respectively. The PI-RADS 3 category, advanced age group, and biopsy-naïve status were identified as additional risk factors (hazard ratios: 2.03, 1.54–1.98, and 1.79, respectively). In the PI-RADS 1–2 cohort, 1, 3, and 5-year cs-PCa diagnosis-free survival rates were 99.1%, 96.5%, and 93.8%, respectively. For the PI-RADS 3 cohort, 1, 3, and 5-year cs-PCa diagnosis-free survival rates were 94.9%, 90.9%, and 89.1%, respectively. For the PI-RADS 4 cohort, 1, 3, and 5-year cs-PCa diagnosis-free survival rates were 56.6%, 55.1%, and 55.1%, respectively. These rates were found to all be 24.2% in the PI-RADS 5 cohort. Considering the 394 cases diagnosed with PCa during follow-up, PI-RADS ≥4 cases were more likely to harbor unfavorable PCa compared to PI-RADS ≤3 cases (P < 0.001). In the PI-RADS 3 subgroup analysis, a low mPSAD (<0.15 ng/mL2) was found to be a protective prognostic factor against unfavorable PCa (P = 0.005).


The PI-RADS category has a significant impact on patient management and provides important diagnostic and prognostic information. Higher initial PI-RADS categories are associated with decreased follow-up losses, a shorter time to PCa diagnosis, increased biopsy rates, a higher likelihood of developing cs-PCa during follow-up, and a worse PCa prognosis. Combining mPSAD with PI-RADS categories could enhance diagnostic stratification in the identification of cs-PCa.

Keywords: Prostatic neoplasm, follow-up studies, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, prognosis, diagnosis, biopsy