Breast Imaging - Original Article

Is gynecomastia related to the disease characteristics and prognosis in testicular germ cell tumor patients?


  • Ahmet Veysel Polat
  • Mesut Öztürk
  • İlkay Çamlıdağ
  • Behiç Akyüz

Received Date: 19.06.2018 Accepted Date: 19.08.2018 Diagn Interv Radiol 2019;25(3):189-194


We aimed to assess the relationship between gynecomastia and tumor markers, histologic subtypes, and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumors.


This study included 73 testicular germ cell cancer patients with pretreatment chest, abdomen and pelvis computed tomography (CT) scans and tumor markers (β-human chorionic gonadotropin [β-hCG], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], α-fetoprotein [AFP]). The volumetric analysis of the breast glandular tissue, the presence of gynecomastia and metastatic disease were determined using CT scans. Patients were classified according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) prognostic classification. The association between gynecomastia, breast glandular tissue volume, tumor markers, metastatic disease, and disease prognosis were evaluated.


Thirty-four of the patients (46.6%) had gynecomastia. A breast volume cutoff value of 0.78 cm3 to diagnose gynecomastia led to 85% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Serum β-hCG level correlated with the breast glandular tissue volume weakly (r=0.242, P = 0.039). Gynecomastia was more common in patients with elevated β-hCG levels (P = 0.047), and was not associated with pulmonary, nonpulmonary distant, or nodal metastases (P = 0.378, P = 0.884, P = 0.333, respectively). No significant association was found between the disease prognosis and gynecomastia (P = 0.556).


Gynecomastia was common among testicular germ cell cancer patients with elevated β-hCG. However, it was not associated with metastatic disease and prognosis.