Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
Interventional Radiology - Original Article

Persistence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations after successful embolotherapy with Amplatzer vascular plug: long-term results

1.

Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

2.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA

Diagn Interv Radiol 2016; 22: 358-364
DOI: 10.5152/dir.2015.15262
Read: 582 Downloads: 145 Published: 03 September 2019

Abstract

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the frequency of persistence and complication rates of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) treated with Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) or Amplatzer vascular plug type 2 (AVP2).

 

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a total of 22 patients with 54 PAVMs between June 2004 and June 2014. We included 12 patients with 35 PAVMs who received percutaneous embolization using AVP or AVP2 only without the use of any other embolic devices. The mean follow-up was 54±24.3 months (range, 31–97 months). The primary end-points of the study were the efficacy of embolotherapy, the increase in oxygen saturation, and the persistence of PAVM on follow-up. Secondary end point was the incidence of complications.

 

RESULTS: The study included 10 female and two male patients with a mean age of 50.2±13.7 years (range, 21–66 years). All PAVMs had a simple angioarchitecture. The technical success of the procedure for PAVM occlusion was 100%. There was a significant increase in the oxygen saturation following embolotherapy (P < 0.0001). Follow-up computed tomography angiography revealed successful treatment in 34 PAVMs (97%) and failed treatment in one PAVM (3%). Twenty-three aneurysmal sacs (67%) showed complete disappearance. The failed treatment was due to persistence of PAVM caused by subsequent development of systemic reperfusion, which did not require further intervention. There were two minor complications but no major complications were encountered.

 

CONCLUSION: Embolotherapy of PAVMs using AVP or AVP2 devices is safe and effective, with high technical success rate, low persistence and complication rates, and with excellent long-term results.

 

 

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